A member of AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group, N.V.

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Annealing
is one type of heat treatment comprising heat to a specific temperature, holding for a specific time and then slowly cooling. Such processes are generally used to obtain a softer structure of the part and to optimize material structure for subsequent forming steps. Parameters obtained are dependent on the material and the desired structure.

Normalizing
Carbon steel is heated to approximately 55C above the AC3 for a minimum of 1 hour. This assures that the steel completely transforms to austenite. The steel is then cooled with an approximate rate of 38C per minute. This results in a fine pearlitic structure and a more uniform structure. Normalized steel generally has a higher strength than a fully annealed product but good strength and ductility

Carburizing
One of the most important metallurgical processes is the case hardening or carburizing process. Parts are heated to 900 – 1000C and by adding specific gases (hydrocarbons) to the processing chamber, the part surface is enriched through carbon absorption.

Following this treatment the part is quenched in order to achieve the required metallurgical properties – which can result in higher resistance to stresses and friction on the component surface. The core of the part remains somewhat softer and more ductile which allows the part to carry higher stresses through its life. Gear parts for transmission are generally treated in this way.

Hardening
is a typical heat treatment process combining heating to a specific temperature (generally above 900C) and direct or fast cooling (quenching) of the part. The process (time and temperature) parameters are determined based on the requirement to alter the structure partially or completely into martensite. The part undergoes tempering treatment after hardening to achieve higher ductility and toughness.

Brazing
is a process for joining components together, where a filler melts under temperature and joins the components together after solidification. In this process, the solidus temperature of the parts to be joined is not reached. In high temperature brazing (above (900C), which normally happens in vacuum, the atmosphere takes on the duties of the fluxing agent.

Nitriding
We provide a unique high temperature, solution - nitriding process for stainless steel products. We have several current applications in the aerospace market for this product done in conjunction with plasma carburizing.

Plasma Carburizing
A method of surface hardening using the glow discharge technology under a vacuum atmosphere - to generate

nitrogen ions which diffuse into the surface of steel components, enhancing hardness and wear characteristics.